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URLs for Web documents can change at any time!  We are doing our best to keep this on-line version of the references up-to-date. It therefore supersedes the printed version. Updated references will be marked with a *.

RFCs are listed in a separate RFC reference section. The reference style used throughout this section is as follows: Author(s) last name, initial(s), title in quotes, publication, and date. If available, the Web site address appears on a separate line. The references are alphabetized according to their tag. This reference list is Copyright Morgan Kaufman Publishing, 2005.

[3GPP1]3rd Generation Partnership Project: "Technical Specifications Group Services and System Aspects," Multi Media Messaging Service (MS) Stage1, Release 6, 3GPP TS 22.140.
[Abl03]Abley, J.: "Hierarchical Anycast for Global Service Distribution," Internet Systems Consortium, 2003.
[ACK02]Anderson, D. P., Cobb, J., Korpela, E., Lebofsky, M., Werthimer, D.:"SETI@home: An Experiment in Public-Resource Computing,"Communications of the ACM, 45(11), pp. 56–61, November 2002.
[AHa01]*Aberer, K., Hauswirth, M.: "Peer-to-Peer Information Systems: Concepts and Models, State-of-the-Art, and Future Systems," Distributed Information Systems Laboratory (LSIR).
[AHa02]Aberer, K., Hauswirth, M.: "An Overview on Peer-to-Peer information Systems," Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Switzerland.
[AHP02]Aberer, K., Hauswirth, M., Punceva, M., Schmidt, R.: "Improving Data Access in P2P Systems." IEEE Internet Computing 6(1), January/February, 2002.
[AHu00]Adar, E., Huberman, B. A.: "Free Riding on Gnutella," First Monday, 5(10), 2000.
[AIM1]"AIM Terms of Service Agreement." "You may access AIM Products only through the interfaces and protocols provided or authorized by AOL."
[Akam1]*Akami Company History.
[AL01]Albitz, P., Liu, C.: DNS and Bind, O’Reilly, 2001.
[ALT1]Nortel Networks: "Web OS Switch Software 10.0 Application Guide," Nortel Networks, Part Number 212777, pp. 207–219, February 2002.
[Amb00]Ambrose, S. E.: Nothing Like It in the World: The Men Who Built the Transcontinental Railroad, 1863–1869, Simon & Schuster, 2000.
[ANS01]American National Standard: "Telecom Glossary 2000, American National Standard for Telecommunications," T1.523–2001, February 28, 2001.
[ANSI1]ANSI Standards Course Material.
[ASW02]Andrews, M., Bruce Shepherd, F., Srinivasan, A., Winkler, P., Zane, F.: "Cluster and Server Selection Using Passive Monitoring," Infocom, 2002.
[Atn99]atnewyork Staff: "Alley Development Team Readies ICQ for Big Time," article, February 5, 1999.
[Aya01]Ayars, J., et al: "Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL 2.0)," W3C Recommendation, August 7, 2001.
[BBC02]BBC News: "Bird Flight Explained," December 16, 2002.
[BCP98]Breslau, L., Cao, P., Fan, L., Phillips, G., Shenker, S.: "Web Caching and Zipf-Like Distributions: Evidence and Implications." Technical report, University of Wisconsin—Madison, Department of Computer Science, July 1998.
[BDE00]Bolosky, W. J., Douceur, J. R., Ely, D., Theimer, M.: "Feasibility of a Server-less Distributed File System Deployed on an Existing Set of Desktop PCs," In Proceedings of the International Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems (SIGMETRICS 2000), pp. 34–43, 2000.
[Bea01]Beaumont, L. R.: "Meeting World Wide Demand for your Content, Evolving to a Content Delivery Network," A Lucent Technologies White Paper, April 25, 2001.
[Bea1]Beaumont, L. R.: "Calculating Web Cache Hit Ratios."
[BeH03]Beck, A., Hofmann, M.: "IRML: A Rule Specification Language for Intermediary Services," June 24, 2003.
[Ber89]Berners-Lee, T.: "Information Management: A Proposal," Proposal to CERN Management, March 1989.
[Ber92]Berners-Lee, T.: "Re: Is there a paper which describes the www protocol," WWW-Talk Mailing List, January 1992.
[BGH00]Bommaiah, E., Guo, K., Hofmann, M., Paul, S.: "Design and Implementation of a Caching System for Streaming Media over the Internet."
[BHC00]Beck, A., Hofmann, M., Condry, M.: "Example Services for Network Edge Proxie," November 2000.
[Bor99]Borland, J.: "Net Video Not Yet Ready for Prime Time," CNet News, February 5, 1999.
[Bor02]Borland, J.: "Roxio Closes Napster Asset Buy," CNET, November 27, 2002.
[Bro04]Brodsky, A. R.: "Telegraph." World Book Online Reference Center. World Book, Inc. March 3, 2004.
[Brod04]Brodsky, A. R." "Telephone." World Book Online Reference Center. World Book, Inc. March 3, 2004.
[Bul01]Bulterman, D. C. A.: "SMIL 2.0, Part 1: Overview, Concepts, and Structure," IEEE Multimedia, October–December 2001.
[Bus45]Bush, V.: "As We May Think," The Atlantic Monthly, July 1945.
[CD92]Casner, S., Deering, S.: "First IETF Internet Audiocast," ACM SIG-COMM, Computer Communications Review, 22(3), July 1992.
[CDK03]Castro, M., Druschel, P., Kermarrec, A.-M., Rowstron, A.: "Scalable Application-Level Anycast for Highly Dynamic Groups."
[CDN96]Chankhunthod, A., Danzig, P. B., Neerdaels, C., Sewarts, M. F., Worrell, K. J.: "A Hierarchical Internet Object Cache," Usenix Technical Conference, 1996.
[CEA1]Consumer Electronics Association, Digital America, History, "Pagers"
[Chm02]Chmielewski, D.: "Bertelsmann to Buy Napster for $8 Million," News Article, May 17, 2002.
[Cia98]Cialdini, R. B.: Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, Quill, Revised edition, October, 1998.
[Cla92]Clark, D.: "By Popular Demand," Talk given at the IETF Plenary, 1992.
[Clip2]Clip2 Distributed Search Solutions: "The Gnutella Protocol Specification v0.4."
[CMH02]Clarke, I., Miller, S. G., Hong, T. W., Sandberg, O., Wiley, B.: "Protecting Free Expression Online with Freenet." IEEE Internet Computing 6(1), January/February 2002.
[CMJ04]Campbell, B., Mahy, R., Jennings, C.: "The Message Session Relay Protocol," draft-ietf-simple-message-sessions-09.txt, IETF SIMPLE Working Group, Internet Draft, Work in Progress, October 24, 2004.
[CoK03]*Colgrave, J., Januszewski, K.: "Using WSDL in a UDDI Registry," Technical Note, Version 2.0, June 29, 2003.
[Com00]Comer, D.: Internetworking with TCP/IP—Volume 1: Principles, Protocols, and Architecture, Prentice Hall, 2000.
[Coo96]Cooper, R.: "New Products, What Separates the Winners from the Losers," In Rosenau, M. D.: The PDMA Handbook of New Product Development, John Wiley & Sons, 1996.
[Copy00]U. S. Copyright Office: "Copyright Basics (Circular 1)," September 2000.
[Cou04] " Global Internet Statistics."
[CSW01]Clarke, I., Sandberg, O., Wiley, B., Hong, T. W.: "Freenet: A Distributed Anonymous Information Storage and Retrieval System." In Federrath, H. (ed): Designing Privacy Enhancing Technologies: International Workshop on Design Issues in Anonymy and Unobservability number 2009 in Computer Science, Springer Verlag, Berlin, 2001.
[Dea03]Dean, K.: "Schoolgirl Settles With RIAA," Wired News, September 10, 2003.,1412,60366,00.htm
[Dea04]Dean, K.: "RIAA Strikes Again at Traders," Wired News, January 21, 2004.,1412,61989,00.html
[Dee91]Deering, S.: "Watching the Waist of the Protocol Hourglass," Presentation at IETF 51 Meeting, London, England, August 2001.
[Dee95]Deering, S.: "IP Multicast and the MBone: Enabling Live, Multiparty, Multimedia Communication on the Internet."
[Dem03]Dempsey, J. A.: A Tale of Two Brothers: The Story of the Wright Brothers, Trafford, June 2003.
[dict1], entry for "standard."
[DMCA98]"The Digital Millennium Copyright Act of 1998," U. S. Copyright Office Summary, December 1998.
[DPT03]Dvorak, J. C., Pirillo, C., Taylor, W.: Online! The Book, Chapter 25 by Matthew Hunt.
[Dup42]Dupuit, A. J. E. (1842): "On Tolls and Transport Charges," Annales des Ponts et Chausses, trns. 1962.
[ED92]Emtage, A., P.: "Deutsch: archie—An Electronic Directory Service for the Internet," Proceedings of the Winter USENIX Conference, San Francisco, CA, January 1992.
[EE68]Engelbart, D. C., English, W. K.: "A Research Center for Augmenting Human Intellect," AFIPS Conference Proceedings of the 1968 Fall Joint Computer Conference, 33, pp. 395–410, San Francisco, CA, December 1968.
[Eri94]Eriksson, H.: "MBONE: The Multicast Backbone," Communications of the ACM, 37(8), pp. 54–60, August 1994.
[Fine1]Fine, M.: "Soundscan Study on Napster Use and Loss of Sales," Study Submitted in A&M Records, Inc., et al. v. Napster, Inc., No. c 99-05183MHP.
[FIPS93]Federal Information Processing Standards Publication 180–1: "Secure Hash Standard," FIPS PUB 180, May 11, 1993.
[FKe03]Foster, I., Kesselman, C.: The Grid: Blueprint for a New Computing Infrastructure, Morgan Kaufmann, 2003.
[Fou1]Foundry Networks: "Global Server Load Balancing with Serveriron," Application Note.
[Fou2]Foundry Networks: "Firewall Load Balancing," Application Note.
[Fri00]Fritzler, A.: "AIM/Oscar Protocol Specification," April 8, 2000.
[Gil02]Gilder, G.: Telecosm: The World After Bandwidth Abundance, Free Press, May 2002.
[Gre00]Greenwald, J.: "Instantly Growing Up," Time Magazine, November 6, 2000.
[Har68]Hardin, G.: "The Tragedy of the Commons," Science, 162: 1243–1248, 1968.
[Her99]Herring, S.: "Interactional Coherence in CMC," Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication, 4(4), 1999.
[HHa00]Hu, J., Hansen, E.: "Record Label Signs Deal with Napster," article, October 31, 2000.
[HNG99]Hofmann, M., et al: "Caching Techniques for Streaming Multimedia over the Internet" Bell Labs Technical Memorandum, April 1999.
[Hol91]Holzmann, G. J.: Design and Validation of Computer Protocols, Prentice-Hall, 1991.
[Hui95]Huitema, C.: Routing in the Internet, Prentice Hall, 1995.
[Hut1]Hutchinson Encyclopedia: "Videotape Recorder."
[IANA1]"IANA Report on Establishment of the .pro Top-Level Domain," May 6, 2002.
[IEC1]International Engineering Consortium, On-Line Education: "Wireless Short Message Service (SMS)."
[IEN 137]Cohen, D.: "On Holy Wars and A Plea For Peace," IEN 137, April 1, 1980.
[IETF1]Internet Engineering Task Force: "Homepage."
[IETF3]Active IETF Working Groups.
[IETF96]Kessler, G. C.: "IETF—History, Background, and Role in Today’s Internet," February 1, 1996.
[Int01]Intel Press Release: "Intel Forms Peer-To-Peer Working Group," August 24, 2000.
[IRI1]Internationalized Resource Identifiers.
[ISO86]International Organization for Standardization: "Information Processing—Text and office systems—Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML)," ISO 8879, Geneva, 1986.
[ISOC1]The Internet Society: "History of the Internet."
[Jay03]Jaynes, R.: "Countdown to Kitty Hawk Moments, Wilbur Wins, but Loses," Originally Printed in Flying Magazine, 2003.
[KBC00]Kubiatowicz, J., Bindel, D., Chen, Y., Czerwinski, S., Eaton, P., Geels, D., Gummadi, R., Rhea, S., Weatherspoon, H., Weimer, W., Wells, C., Zhao, B.: "OceanStore: An Architecture for Global-Scale Persistent Storage," Appears in Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Architectural Support for Programming Languages and Operating Systems (ASPLOS 2000), November 2000.
[KH95]Krunz, M., Hughs, H.: "A Traffic Model for MPEG-Coded VBR Streams," 1995 ACM SIGMETRICS Conference on Measurement and Modeling of Computer Systems, Ottawa, May 15–19, 1995.
[Kin02]King, B.: "Napster’s Assets Go for a Song," Wired News, November 28, 2002.,1412,56633,00.html
[KM91]Kahle, B., Medlar, A.: "An Information System for Corporate Users: Wide Area Information Servers," ConneXions—The Interoperability Report, 5(11), November 1991.
[Knu73]Knuth, D. E.: The Art of Computer Programming, Volume 3, Sorting and Searching, First Edition, 1973.
[KR01]Krishnamurthy, B., Rexford, J.: Web Protocols and Practice, Addison Wesley, 2001.
[Kub03]Kubiatowicz, J.: "Extracting Guarantees from Chaos," Communications of the ACM, February 2003.
[Kum95]Kumar, V.: Mbone: Interactive Multimedia on the Internet, New Riders Publishing, Indianapolis, 1995.
[Lau00] Liquid Audio Press Release: "AOL’s Nullsoft Winamp and Liquid Audio Form Multi-Year Digital Music Alliance," January 4, 2000.
[LBK02]Liben-Nowell, D., Balakrishnan, H., and Karger, D.: "Analysis of the Evolution of Peer-to-Peer Systems." ACM Conference on Principles of Distributed Computing (PODC), Monterey, CA, July 2002.
[LC92]Berners-Lee, T., Connolly, D.: "HyperText Mark-up Language, HTML," 1992.
[LCL02]Lv, Q., Cao, P., Cohen, E., Li, K., Shenker, S.: "Search and Replication in Unstructured Peer-to-Peer Networks." In Proceedings of 16th ACM International Conference on Supercomputing (ICS’02), New York, June 2002.
[Lee03]Lee, J.: "An End-User Perspective on File-Sharing Systems," Communications of the ACM, February 2003.
[LeG91]Le Gall, D.: "MPEG: A Video Compression Standard for Multimedia Applications," Communications of the ACM, 34, pp. 47–58, April 1991.
[Les00]Lessig, L.: Code and Other Laws of Cyberspace, Basic Books, June 2000.
[Li99]Li, W.: "Zipf’s Law," Rockefeller University, New York.
[LLP97]Karger, D., Lehman, E. Leighton, F., Levine, M., Lewin, D., and Panigrahy: "Consistent Hashing and Random Trees: Distributed Caching Protocols for Relieving Hot Spots on the World Wide Web." In Proceedings of the 29th Annual ACM Symposium on Theory of Computing, pp. 645–663, El Paso, TX, May 1997.
[LNB99]Luotonen, A., Nielsen, H. F., Berners-Lee, T.: "Cern httpd," 1999.
[Luo97]Luotonen, A.: Web proxy Servers, Prentice Hall, 1997.
[Mar00]Marsan, C. D.: "Caching Debate Rages," Network World Fusion, April 17, 2000.
[Mar01]Marcus, S.: "The History of Napster," Term Paper, University of Tennessee at Knoxville, December 6, 2001.
[Mas1]Masinter, L.: "HyperText Transfer Protocol (http) Working Group Charter."
[Mcc01]McCoy, J.: "Mojo Nation Responds," The O’Reilly Network, January 11, 2001.
[McN99]McNett, D.: "US Government’s Encryption Standard Broken In Less Than A Day," Press Release, January 19, 1999.
[Mer1]Merit Network, Inc.: "NSFNET History of Usage by Service."
[MH03]McCullagh, D., Hu, J.: "FCC Lifts AOL Messaging Limits," CNET, August 20, 2003.
[MIME]"Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions." See RFC 2045, RFC 2046, RFC 2047, RFC 2048, and RFC 2049.
[MKL02]Milojicic, D. S., Kalogeraki, V., Lukose, R., Nagaraja, K., Pruyne, J., Richard, B., Rollins, S., Xu, Z.: "Peer-to-Peer Computing," HP Laboratories, Palo Alto, CA, HPL-2002-57, March 8, 2002.
[Mobi1] "Frequently Asked Questions, How Does MMS Contrast to SMS, EMS and Smart Messaging?"
[Moo00]Moore, K.: "Recommendation against publication of draft-cerpa-necp-02.txt," E-mail Message to the IETF, April 6, 2000.
[Moo03]Moore, C.: "XMPP Rises to Face SIMPLE Standard," InfoWorld, April 18, 2003.
[Mye76]Myers, G. J.: Software Reliability: Principles and Practices, John Wiley & Sons, 1976.
[BHL99]Bray, T., Hollander, D., Layman, A.: "W3C Recommendation: Namespaces in XML," January 14, 1999.
[Nap03]Napster Press Release: "Napster’s Back," October 29, 2003.
[Nel67]Nelson, T. H.: "Getting it Out of Our System," In Schecheter, G. (ed.): Information Retrieval—A Critical Review, Thompson Books, Washington, D.C., 1967.
[Net01]Network Appliance: "Internet Content Adaptation Protocol (ICAP)," White Paper, July 30, 2001.
[Net94]"Netscape: Persistent Client State HTTP Cookies."
[NWFE1]"Network Fusion Encyclopedia" entry for ‘Metcalfe’s Law."
[ODF+01]Dingledine, R., Freedman, M. J., Molnar, D.: "Accountability." In Oram, A.: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O’Reilly & Associates, March 2001.
[OeRa1]Oetiker, T., and Rand, D.: "The Multi Router Traffic Grapher."
[Oika]Oikarinen, J.: "IRC History by Jarkko Oikarinen."
[OL01]Lethin, R.: "Reputation." In Oram, A.: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O’Reilly & Associates, March 2001.
[OMH01]Minar, N., Hedlund, M.: "Peer-to-Peer Models Through the History of the Internet," In Oram, A.: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O’Reilly and Associates, March 2001.
[Ope00]"Napster Messages," April 7, 2000.
[OWC01]Waldman, M., Cranor, L. F., Rubin, A.: "Trust," In Oram, A.: Peer-to-Peer: Harnessing the Power of Disruptive Technologies, O’Reilly & Associates, March 2001.
[Page]*phone warehouse Web site: "Pager History."
[Par72]Parnas, D. L.: "On the Criteria To Be Used in Decomposing Systems into Modules," Communications of the ACM, Vol. 15, No. 12, December 1972, pp. 1053–1058.
[Phi03]Philipkoski, K.: "Battle Not Over for File Sharers," Wired News, December 23, 2003.,1412,61714,00.html
[RDr01]Rowstron, A., Druschel, P.: "Pastry: Scalable, Decentralized Object Location and Routing for Large-Scale Peer-to-Peer Systems." In Proceedings of the 18th IFIP/ACM International Conference on Distributed Systems Platforms (Middleware 2001), Heidelberg, Germany, November 2001.
[Real1]RealNetworks: "Introduction To Streaming Media with RealOne Player," 2002.
[RIAA]Record Industry Association of America, Press Room: "Legal Cases."
[RoS04]Rousskov, A., Stecher, M.: "HTTP Adaptation with OPES," draft-ietf-opes-http-2, Work in Progress, January 2004.
Rou03][Beck, A., Rousskov, A.: "P: Message Processing Language," draft-rousskov-opes-rules-01, October 27, 2003.
[Rou04]Rousskov, A.: "OPES Callout Protocol Core," draft-ietf-opes-core-05, Work in Progress, May 2004.
[RPH01]Ratnasamy, S., Francis, P., Handley, M., Karp, R., Shenker, S.: "A Scalable Content-Addressable Network." In Proceedings of the ACM SIGCOMM, 2001.
[RSC98]Reed, D. P., Saltzer, J. H., Clark, D. D.: "Comment on Active Networking and End-to-End Arguments," IEEE Network, 12(3), May/June 1998.
[RTSP]"RTSP Information Portal," Started by RealNetworks.
[RWE01]Rhea, S., Wells, C., Eaton, P., Geels, D., Zhao, B., Weatherspoon, H., Kubiatowicz, J.: "Maintenance-free Global Data Storage." IEEE Internet Computing 5(5), September/October 2001.
[Sam04]Samuelson, P.: "What is at Stake in MGM V. Grokster?," Communications of the ACM, 47(2), February 2004.
[Sau04]Saunders, C.: "VoIP Gets SIMPLE For Avaya,", February 23, 2004.
[SIMPLE]"SIP for Instant Messaging and Presence Leveraging Extensions," IETF Working Group.
[Sin95]van Sinderen, M. J.: "On the Design of Application Protocols." PhD Thesis, University of Twente, Enschede, The Netherlands, 1995.
[SKB01]Stoica, I., Morris, R., Karger, D., Frans Kaashoek, M., and Balakrishnan, H.: "Chord: A Scalable Peer-to-peer Lookup Service for Internet Applications," ACM SIGCOMM, pp. 149–160, San Diego, CA, August 2001.
[Sob95]Sobel, D.: Longitude: The True Story of a Lone Genius Who Solved the Greatest Scientific Problem of His Time, Walker & Co, October 1995.
[SRD84]Saltzer, J. H., Reed, D. P., Clark, D. D.: "End-to-End Arguments in System Design," ACM Transactions on Communications, 2(4), 1984.
[Sri01]Sripanidkulchai, K.: "The Popularity of Gnutella Queries and Its Implications on Scalability," Carnegie Mellon University, February 2001.
[SRL98]Savetz, K., Randall, N., Lepage, Y.: "MBONE: Multicasting Tomorrow’s Internet," 1998.
[SRT99]Sen, S., Rexford, J., Towsley, D.: "Proxy Prefix Caching for Multimedia Streams," IEEE Infocom, New York, March 1999.
[SSL96]Netscape Communications: "The SSL Protocol, Version 3.0," November 1996.
[Ste94]Stevens, W. R.: TCP/IP Illustrated—Volume 1: The Protocols, Addison Wesley, 1994.
[Tar00]Taro, K.: "Meet the Napster," CNN, September 25, 2000.
[Tay03]Taylor, C.: "Invention of the Year, the 99˘ Solution," Time Magazine, 2003.
[Tech1]TechFest Ethernet Technical Summary.
[Tech2]SONET / SDH Technical Summary.
[TellA]Tellme Networks, Inc.: "Our Clients."
[TellB]Tellme Networks, Inc.: "Tellme Studio VoiceXML 2.0 Essentials."
[Tha]Thawte Certification Authority.
[TPC]TruePosition Corporation: "The Location Equations: Sub-50M Accuracy, Any Phone, Anywhere."
[TPF00]Telling, R. H., Pickard, C. J., Payne, M. C., Field, J. D.: "Theoretical Strength and Cleavage of Diamond," Physical Review Letters, 84(22), May 29, 2000.
[TSS97]Tennenhouse, D. L., Smith, J. M., Sincoskie, W. D., Wetherall, D. J., Minden, G. J.: "A Survey of Active Network Research." IEEE Communications Magazine, 35(1), January 1997.
[UDD00] "UDDI Technical White Paper," September 6, 2000.
[UDDI V3] "UDDI version 3.0, UDDI Spec Technical Committee Specification," 19 July 2002.
[Ver03]VeriSign,,Inc.: "VeriSign Trusted Web Transactions Solution," 2003.
[Vich1]Vichinsky, J. H.: "Napster and the Law," Course Notes, Thomas M. Cooley Law School.
[VoiceXML]McGlashan, S., et al: "Voice Extensible Markup Language (VoiceXML) Version 2.0," W3C Candidate Recommendation, February 20, 2003.
[W3C CCPP]"Composite Capability/Preference Profiles (CC/PP): Structure and Vocabularies," W3C Working Draft, July 28, 2003.
[W3C04]World Wide Web Consortium: "World Wide Web Consortium Process Document," February 5, 2004.
[W3C1]World Wide Web Consortium: "Homepage."
[W3C2]W3C: "Some Early Ideas for HTML."
[W3C3]W3C: "HTML Home Page."
[W3C7]W3C in 7 points: "World Wide Web Consortium."
[W3S04] "Browser Statistics."
[WAP00]Wireless Application Protocol Forum, Ltd.: "Wireless Application Protocol, Architecture Specification," WAP-210-WAPArch-20010712, July 12, 2000.
[WAP01]Wireless Application Protocol Forum, Ltd.: "WAP Pictogram Specification" version April 6, 2001, Wireless Application Protocol, WAP-213-WAPInterPic-20010406-a
[WAP02]Wireless Application Protocol Forum, Ltd.: "WAP 2.0 Technical White Paper," January 2002.
[WAP UA]Wireless Application Protocol Forum, Ltd.: "WAG UAProf," version October 20, 2001. Wireless Application Protocol, WAP-248-UAPROF-20011020-a.
[WDNS]imminet: "WebDNS 100, Building Smarter Faster Networks to Satisfy Global Users," Product Description, Lucent Technologies, 2001.
[Wes01]Wessels, D.: Web Caching, O’Reilly, 2001.
[Wes02]Wessels, D.: "Squid Web Proxy Cache," 2001.
[WF03]Wessels, D., Fomenkov, M.: "Wow, That’s a Lot of Packets," Proceedings of Passive and Active Measurement Workshop (PAM), April 2003.
[WiZ01]Witmann, R., Zitterbart, M.: Multicast Communication—Protocols and Applications, Morgan Kaufmann Publishing, 2001.
[Woo02]Woods, B.: "Review—AOL’s AIM,", May 24, 2002.
[WRC00]Waldman, M., Rubin, A., Cranor, L.: "Publius: A Robust, Tamper-Evident, Censorship-Resistant Web Publishing System," Proceedings of the 9th USENIX Security Symposium, August 2000.
[BHM+04]Booth, D. et al: "Web Services Architecture," W3C Working Draft, February 11, 2004.
[XMPP1]"IETF Text Conferencing."
[ZYF02]Zeinalipour-Yazti, D., Folias, T.: "A Quantitative Analysis of the Gnutella Network Traffic," University of California, Department of Computer Science, Riverside, CA, June 17, 2002.

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